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ORCHIDACEAE

Zeuxine Lindl., Orchid. Scelet.:9 (1826). Adenostylis Blume; Haplochilus Endl.; Monochilus; Psyechilos Breda

By: Bhakta B. Raskoti & Lokesh R. Shakya

 

Taxon Description

Terrestrial or rarely lithophytic herbs. Rhizome fleshy, creeping, nodded; roots arises from nodes. Roots short or elongated, cylindric, slender. Stem erect or ascending, often sheathed in basal portion, cylindric, leafy near middle. Leaves cauline or scattered, with or without a petiole, linear, lanceolate or ovate. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, glabrous or pubescent, with few to many flowers; floral bracts glabrous or pubescent. Flowers resupinate, not opening widely; ovary often twisted. Sepals subsimilar, dorsal sepal concave, forming a hood with petals; lateral sepals covered the base of lip. Petals connate with dorsal sepal, not fleshy. Lip entire or lobed, adnate to the column at base, hypochile saccate to cymbiform, each side with callus at base or without callus; mesochile oblong, claw like; epichile dilated, entire or bilobulated. Column short, dilated, with or without wings; pollinia 2, granular, sectile attached with viscidium via a long caudicle; rosetellum bilobed; stigma lobed. Fruit a capsule, erect, elliptic to fusiform.

Taxon Statistics

Worldwide about 80 species in Africa, Asia, SE Asia, Australasia. Ten species in Nepal

Key to Species

1a  Leaves sessile, erect, linear to linear-lanceolat ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

b    Leaves with petiole-like stalk, spreading, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic ……………………………………………………………. 4

2a  Leaves evenly spaced. Lip white. Ovary and pedicel hairy …………………………………………………. 7 Z. membranacea

b    Leaves clustered. Lip yellow. Ovary and pedicel glabrous …………………………………………………………………………….. 3

3a  Dorsal sepal ovate. Lip epichile entire …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Z. lindleyana

b    Dorsal sepal ovate-oblong. Lip epichile obscurely 2-lobed ………………………………………………. 10 Z. strateumatica

4a  Epichile margin irregularly dentate …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Z. longilabris

b    Epichile margin entire …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

5a  Leaves usually with white line along mid-vein ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

b    Leaves uniformly green ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

6a  Lip entire, callus absent ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Z. integrilabella

b    Lip lobed, callus present ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

7a  Lip cymbiform. Epichile shallowly 2-lobed ………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Z. goodyeroides

b    Lip Y-shaped. Epichile distinctly 2-lobed ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Z. nervosa

8a  Lip yellow T-shaped …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Z. flava

b    Lip white Y-shaped ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

9a  Petals elliptic. Epichile not reflexed, lobes obovate ………………………………………………………………………… 1 Z. affinis

b    Petals subovate. Epichile reflexed, lobes rhombic ………………………………………………………………………… 9 Z. reflexa

1. Zeuxine affinis (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6[17]:108 (1890).

Monochilus affinis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21]:487 (1840); Aetheria mollis Lindl.; Haplochilus affinis (Lindl.) D.Dietr.

Plants 1026 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 210 cm, base sheathed and with 35 evenly spaced leaves near the middle. Leaves spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 25.5 × 0.51.5 cm, uniformly green, apex acute, petiole-like base and tubular sheath 0.51 cm. Inflorescence 1015 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 59 cm, laxly 210-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 810 × 22.5 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts broadly lanceolate, 510 × 34 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 58 mm across, sepals reddish brown, petals and lip white; ovary and pedicel fusiform, 810 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal ovate, 46 × 34 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 46 × 12 mm, apex obtuse. Petals subobliquely elliptic, 35 × 12 mm, apex acute. Lip Y-shaped, 710 × 23 mm; hypochile saccate, 34 × 25 mm, having hooked calli; mesochile ca. 1 mm; epichile ovate 45 × 23 mm, 2-lobed, lobules obovate, 24 × 12 mm, margin entire. Column ca. 2 mm. Capsule fusiform.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 8002,200 m.

 Ecology: Dense forests, litter-covered, shady slopes.

 Flowering: May.  Fruiting: June–August.

2. Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon:90 (1885).

Monochilus flavus Wall. ex. Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21]:487 (1840); Etaeria flava Lindl. ex. Wall.; Haplochilus flavus (Wall. ex. Lindl.)  D.Dietr.

Plants 930 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 514 cm, base sheathed, and with 24 evenly spaced leaves near the middle. Leaves spreading, broadly lanceolate to ovate, 26 × 1.52 cm, uniformly green, apex acuminate, petiole-like base and tubular sheath 12 cm. Inflorescence 716 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 37 cm, laxly 510-flowered. Sterile bracts broadly lanceolate, 512 × 13 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 68 × 11.5 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 35 mm across, sepals yellowish green, petals and lip yellow; pedicel and ovary fusiform, 510 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal subovate, 35 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 23 × 12 mm, apex acute. Petals oblong, 35 × 12 mm, apex acute. Lip T-shaped, 34 × 22.5 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 2 mm, having hooked calli; mesochile ca. 1 mm, epichile horizontally oblong, 23 × 12, containing 2 lobules, lobules obovate, 11.5 × 1.52 mm, margin entire. Column ca. 1.5 mm. Capsule fusiform.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 1,2002,300 m.

 Ecology: Forest margins and open areas.

 Flowering: May.  Fruiting: JuneAugust.

3. Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21]:486 (1840).

Monochilus galeatus Lindl.; M. goodyeroides (Lindl.) Lindl.

Plants 1520 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 35 cm, base sheathed and with 3 or 4 leaves clustered near the middle. Leaves spreading, ovate, 2.55.5 × 1.52.5 cm, abaxially pale green, adaxially green with a silver-white stripe along mid-vein, apex acute, petiole-like base and tubular sheath 12 cm. Inflorescence 917 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 2.55.5 cm, laxly to subdensely 410-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 810 × 12 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts ovate, 510 × 34 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 35 mm across, sepals and petals reddish brown, petals and lip white; ovary and pedicel oblong, 510 mm, glabrous. Dorsal sepal ovate, 45 × 22.5 mm, apex acute. Lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 44.5 × 11.4 mm, apex obtuse. Petals falcately lanceolate, 44.5 × 11.5 mm, apex subacute. Lip cymbiform, 44.5 × 23 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, having hooked calli; mesochile ca. 0.5 mm, epichile horizontally oblong, ca. 1.52 × 11.5 mm, shallowly 2-lobed, lobules suborbicular, ca. 1 × 1.5 mm. Column 22.5 mm. Capsule oblong.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, E Asia, SE Asia and C Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 1,2002,500 m.

 Ecology: Damp places, shaded areas.

 Flowering: September–October.  Fruiting: October–November.

4. Zeuxine integrilabella

Plants 1520 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 46 cm, base sheathed and with 3 or 4 leaves clustered near the middle. Leaves spreading, narrowly elliptic-ovate to broadly lanceolate, 2.53.5 × 11.5 cm, pale green below, green above with a silver-white stripe along mid-vein, base sheathing, apex obtuse, petiole-like base 0.51.5 cm. Inflorescence 914 cm, peduncle glabrous; rachis 1.54.5 cm, laxly 27-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 810 × 11.5 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts lanceolate, 610 × 12 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 23 mm across, sepals and petals reddish brown, petals and lip white; ovary and pedicel oblong, 68 mm, glabrous. Dorsal sepal elliptic, 56 × 1.52 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals oblong, 46 × 1.52 mm, apex acute. Petals falcately lanceolate, 45 × 1.52 mm, apex obtuse. Lip rhombic, 45 × 23 mm, entire, callus absent, apex acute. Column ca. 2 mm. Capsule oblong.

 Distribution: Nepal and C Asia.

 Altitudinal range: ca. 2,100 m.

 Ecology: Temperate forests near damp places.

 Flowering: September.  Fruiting: October–December.

5. Zeuxine lindleyana A.N.Rao, Arunachal Forest News 6:34 (1988).

Plants 58 cm tall. Rhizome not creeping, short, nodes bearing roots. Stem 35 cm, base sheathed and with 47 clustered leaves above. Leaves erect, linear-lanceolate, 12 × 0.20.3 cm, uniformly green, base sheathing, apex acuminate, sessile with sheathing base. Inflorescence 1.52 cm, peduncle glabrous; rachis 12 cm, laxly to densely 410-flowered. Sterile bracts rarely present, lanceolate, 1015 × 12 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 510 × 1.52 mm, apex acuminate, longer than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 23 mm across, sepals and petals white, lip yellow; ovary and pedicel cylindric-elliptic, 56 mm, glabrous. Dorsal sepal ovate, 34 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 45 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Petals obliquely oblong, 46 × 24 mm, apex obtuse. Lip cymbiform, 35 × 11.5 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 2 mm, having lamellate calli; mesochile oblong, ca. 1 mm; epichile elliptic-oblong, 1.41.8 × 22.5 mm, apex obtuse, without lobes. Column ca. 11.5 mm. Capsule elliptic.

 Distribution: Nepal and E Himalaya. 

Altitudinal range: 200800 m. 

Ecology: Forest margins and grassland slopes. 

Flowering: JanuaryFebruary.  Fruiting: MarchApril.

6. Zeuxine longilabris (Lindl.) Trimen, Cat. Pl. Ceyl.:90 (1885).

Monochilus longilabris Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21]:487 (1840); Haplochilus longilabris (Lindl.) D.Dietr.

Plants 1330 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 28 cm, base sheathed and with 3 or 4 leaves clustered near the middle. Leaves spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 23 × 12 cm, uniformly green, apex acute, petiole-like base and tubular sheath 12 cm. Inflorescence 825 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 510 cm, laxly 515-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 810 × 12 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1015 × 34 mm, apex acute, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers ca. 5 mm across, sepals and petals reddish brown, petals and lip white; ovary and pedicel fusiform, 1015 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal obliquely ovate-rhombic, 57 × 35 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate, 45 × 22.5 mm, apex acute. Petals ovate, 57 × 22.5 mm, apex acute. Lip Y-shaped, 810 × 23 mm; hypochile 35 mm having hookd calli; mesochile ca. 1 mm, epichile somewhat flabellate, 46 × 34 mm, apex 2-lobed, lobules obliquely oblong, margin irregularly dentate, 1.52 × 11.5 mm. Column 22.5 mm. Capsule fusiform.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, SE Asia and C Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 200800 m.

 Ecology: Shorea robusta forests, humid areas.

 Flowering: MarchApril.  Fruiting: MayJune.

7. Zeuxine membranacea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21] (1840).

Tripleura pallida Lindl.

Plants 1840 cm tall. Rhizome not creeping, short, nodes bearing roots. Stem 915 cm, base sheathed and with 3 or 4 evenly spaced leaves in the upper part. Leaves erect, linear-lanceolate, ca. 17 × 0.20.5 cm, uniformly green, apex acute, sessile with sheathing base. Inflorescence 1037 cm, peduncle glabrous; rachis 36 cm, laxly to densely 1025-flowered. Sterile bracts narrowly lanceolate, 712 × 1.52 cm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 510 × 12 mm, apex acute, longer than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 25 mm across, sepals and petals white, lip yellow; ovary and pedicel elliptic, 56 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 34 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong, 45 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Petals obliquely ovate, 46 × 24 mm, apex obtuse. Lip cymbiform, 35 × 23 mm; hypochile saccate ca. 2 mm, having lamellate calli, mesochile oblong ca. 1 mm, epichile elliptic-oblong, 11.5 × 22.5 mm, obscurely 2-lobed, lobules semielliptic, ca. 11.5 × 11.5 mm, margin entire. Column 11.5 mm. Capsule elliptic.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, SE Asia and C Asia.

Altitudinal range: 400700 m.

Ecology: Humid grasslands and meadows.

Flowering: OctoberDecember.  Fruiting: NovemberJanuary.

8. Zeuxine nervosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Trimen, Cat. Pl. Ceyl.:90 (1885).

Monochilus nervosus Wall. ex. Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 21]:487 (1840); Haplochilus nervosus (Wall. ex Lindl.) D.Dietr.

Plants 2025 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 1015 cm, base sheathed and with 3 or 4 evenly spaced leaves near the middle. Leaves spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 36 × 15 cm, pale green below, green above with a silver-white stripe along mid-vein, apex acute, petiole-like base and tubular sheath ca. 12 cm. Inflorescence 2025 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 310 cm, laxly 410-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1020 × 12 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 610 × 35 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 68 mm across, sepals reddish brown, petals and lip white; pedicel and ovary oblong, 610 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal ovate, 56 × 45 mm, apex acute. Lateral sepals oblong-ovate, 67 × 34 mm, apex obtuse. Petals obliquely ovate, 56 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Lip Y-shaped, 56 × 23 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 23 × 23 mm, having lamellate calli, mesochile ca. 1 mm, epichile oblong, ca. 34 × 34 mm, 2-lobed, lobules deviated nearly acute angle, suborbicular, 1.52 × 1.52 mm, margin entire. Column ca. 3 mm. Capsule oblong.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2001,200 m.

Ecology: Damp places, shaded areas.

Flowering: FebruaryMarch.  Fruiting: MarchMay.

9. Zeuxine reflexa King & Pantl., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. [Calcutta] 8:291 (1898).

Plants 1025 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, elongate, nodes bearing roots. Stem 514 cm, base sheathed and with 46 leaves clustered near the middle. Leaves spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 34 × 12 cm, uniformly green, apex acute, petiole-like base and tubular sheath 13 cm. Inflorescence 1020 cm, peduncle sparsely hairy; rachis 58 cm, laxly to subdensely up to 10-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 1012 × 23 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 510 × 34 mm, apex acuminate, shorter than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 25 mm across, sepals reddish brown, petals and lip white; ovary and pedicel oblong, 810 mm, hairy. Dorsal sepal ovate, 35 × 12 mm, apex subacute. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate, 45 × 12 mm, apex obtuse. Petals subovate, 34 × 12 mm, apex acute to obtuse. Lip Y-shaped, 35 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 23 mm, having hooked calli; mesochile flat, 11.5 mm; epichile reflexed, oblong, 2-lobed; lobules deviated at an acute angle, rhombic, 23 × 1.52 mm, margin entire. Column 22.5 mm. Capsule fusiform.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, N Asia and C Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 400700 m.

 Ecology: Humid forests.

 Flowering: April.  Fruiting: March–May.

10. Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45:394 (1911).

Orchis strateumatica L., Sp. Pl. 2:943 (1753); Adenostylis strateumatica (L.) Ames; Neottia strateumatica (L.) R.Br.; Pterygodium sulcatum Roxb.; Spiranthes strateumatica (L.) Lindl.; Zeuxine sulcata (Roxb.) Lindl.

Plants 314 cm tall. Rhizome not creeping, short, nodes bearing roots. Stem 28 cm, base sheathed and with 510 clustered leaves above. Leaves erect, linear-lanceolate, 15 × 0.20.3 mm, uniformly green, apex acuminate, sessile with sheathing base. Inflorescence 1.55 cm, peduncle glabrous; rachis 35 cm, laxly to densely 525-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1015 × 23 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 515 × 23 mm, apex acuminate, longer than ovary and pedicel. Flowers 23 mm across, sepals and petals white, lip yellow; ovary and pedicel cylindric-elliptic, 56 mm, glabrous. Dorsal sepal ovate-oblong, 34 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 45 × 23 mm, apex obtuse. Petals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 46 × 24 mm, apex obtuse. Lip cymbiform, 35 × 22.5 mm; hypochile saccate, ca. 2 mm, having lamellate calli; mesochile oblong ca. 1 mm; epichile elliptic-orbicular, 1.52 × 1.52.5 mm, obscurely 2-lobed; lobules semicircular, 0.58 × 11.5 mm, margin entire. Column ca. 1 mm. Capsule elliptic.

 Distribution: Nepal, W Himalaya, E Himalaya, S Asia, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

 Altitudinal range: 4001,200 m.

 Ecology: Levee banks, grasslands sandy areas.

 Flowering: NovemberJanuary.  Fruiting: JanuaryMarch.