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ORCHIDACEAE

Peristylus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. [8]:404 (1825).

By: Lokesh R. Shakya & Pushpa Shakya  

Taxon Description

Plants terrestrial, small to medium-sized, often with subterranean tubers; tubers 1 rarely 2, small, cylindric to ellipsoid. Stem erect, elongate, few to many-leaved, with bladeless sheaths at base. Leaves usually broad and crowded, often spirally arranged, linear to broadly elliptic, glabrous, persistent, convolute, herbaceous, sessile, usually amplexicaule, rarely petiolate. Inflorescence terminal, a few- to many-flowered raceme. Flowers spirally arranged, resupinate, usually green, brownish, white or yellowish, pedicel and ovary usually erect, cylindric-fusiform, glabrous. Sepals free, dorsal sepal and petals forming a hood over column. Petals free, usually more or less intermediate in shape between the dorsal sepal and the lateral sepals. Lip 3-lobed, lateral lobes filiform to oblong, diverging or spreading, mid-lobe usually broader than lateral lobes, spurred. Spur short, globose to elongated, clavate to narrowly tubular; column short. Stigmas 2, stigma arms 2, adnate to the base of the lip. Pollinia 2, shortly clavate, sectile, caudicles present, viscidium present.

Taxon Statistics

Worldwide about 100 species in Asia and Australasia. Thirteen species in Nepal.

Key to Species

1a    Leaves spaced along the stem…………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

b      Leaves clustered…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

2a    Sterile bracts 1 or absent. Lip obscurely 3-lobed ………………………….. 2. P. biermannianus

b      Sterile bracts  (1)26. Lip distinctly 3-lobed ……………………………………………………………….. 3

3a    Lateral lobes lip linear, spreading horizontally …………………………………………… 5. P. densus

b      Lateral lobes of lip filiform, curved or spreading upwards ..………………………………………… 4

4a    Petals ovate. Spur ovate ………………………………………………………………………. 3. P. calcaratus

b      Petals oblong. Spur clavate ………………………………………………………………… 13. P. tipuliferus

5a    Leaves 2 or 3, clustered near base………………………………………………………………………………. 6

b      Leaves more than 3, clustered near middle ……………………………………………………………….. 7

6a    Flowers white. Lateral lobes of lip triangular, shorter than mid-lobe …….. 8. P. intrudens

b      Flowers green. Lateral lobes of lip linear, longer than mid-lobe …………….. 9. P. lacertifer

7a    Leaves linear-lanceolate ……………………………………………………………………………… 10. P. lawii

b      Leaves elliptic-lanceolate ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

8a    Lip 3-lobed near middle, lateral lobes longer than mid-lobe ………………………………………. 9

b      Lip 3-lobed near apex, lateral lobes equal or shorter than mid-lobe ………………………… 10

9a   Flowers white, 1.62.5 mm acrossPetals ovate-lanceolate, 8.510 mm. 4. P. constrictus

b      Flowers ca. 5 mm across. Petals oblong-lanceolate, 35 mm …………… 6. P. goodyeroides

10a  Leaf margins crenulate …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

  b    Leaf margins entire ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

  11a  Lateral and mid-lobe ovate-orbicular …………………………………………… 7. P. hamiltonianus

  b      Lateral and mid-lobe of lip triangular ……………………………………………………… 12. P. prainii

  12a  Flowers white. Sterile bracts 2. Spur saccate …………………………………………….. 1. P. affinis

  b      Flowers green. Ebracteate, or sterile bract 1. Spur fusiform ………………….. 11. P. parishii

1. Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 31(3):48 (1977).

Habenaria affinis D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.:25 (1825); Gymnadenia affinis (D.Don) Rchb.f.; Habenaria goodyeroides var. affinis (D.Don) King & Pantl.; Peristylus goodyeroides var. affinis (D.Don) C.M.Cooke

Plants ca. 23 cm tall. Tuber cylindric-oblong, ca. 13 × 3 mm. Stem with 3 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 1.55 cm. Leaves 3 or 4, clustered at middle of stem, sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, ca. 8 × 1.5 cm acute, 5-veined, margin entire. Inflorescence 10 cm, spike 6 cm, laxly to densely many-flowered. Sterile bracts 2, lanceolate, ca. 10 × 3 mm, acute, acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 7-8 × 2 mm, as long as or slightly exceeding pedicel and ovary; acuminate. Flowers white, ca. 3 mm across; pedicel and ovary slender, ca. 7 mm. Dorsal sepal lanceolate, 34 × ca. 1 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals lanceolate, ca. 3 × 1 mm, turned downwards, obtuse. Petals green, as long as or slightly shorter than sepals, 23 × ca. 0.8 mm, obtuse. Lip oblong-obovate, ca. 3 × 2 mm, 3-lobed near apex, lateral lobes oblong, ca. 1.5 mm, shorter than mid-lobe, diverging, mid-lobe oblong, ca. 2 mm, broader than the lateral lobes. Spur saccate, ca. 1 mm. Column ca. 0.8mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, W Himalaya, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 3,1003,200 m.

 Ecology: Grassland.

 Flowering: September–October.

2. Peristylus biermannianus (King & Pantl.) X.H.Jin, Schuit. & W.T.Jin, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 77:51 (2014).

Habenaria biermanniana King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 64(3):343 (1896); Platanthera biermanniana (King & Pantl.) Kraenzl.

Plants 1225 cm tall. Tuber cylindric-ovate or ovoid, 718 × 36 mm. Stem with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 13 cm. Leaves 3 or 4, somewhat spaced along the stem, sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, 1.56 × 0.41.3 cm, acute, 3-veined, margin entire. Inflorescence 715 cm, spike 412 cm, laxly few- to many-flowered. Sterile bract usually 1, lanceolate, 1.12.5 × 0.20.4 cm, acute, acuminate, foliaceous, sometimes absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, 815 × 23 mm, as long as or slightly exceeding pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers green, 23 mm across, pedicel and ovary slender, 79 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, 34 × 12 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, oblong, as long as or slightly longer than dorsal sepal, 45 × ca. 1 mm, curved upwards, obtuse. Petals lanceolate, ca. 3 × 1 mm, shorter than sepals, curved upwards, acute. Lip linear-oblong, 23 mm, obscurely 3-lobed. Spur clavate, pendulous, ca. 2-3 mm. Column 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal and E Himalaya.

 Altitudinal range: 2,3003,000 m.

 Ecology: In mossy Rhododendron forest on mossy soil.

 Flowering: AugustSeptember.

3. Peristylus calcaratus (Rolfe) S.Y.Hu, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 26(3-4):398 (1973).

Glossula calcarata Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1913(4):145 (1913)

Plants ca. 24 cm tall. Tuber oblong-ellipsoid. 8 × 5 mm. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 1215 mm. Leaves 2, somewhat spaced along the stem, upper one smaller, sessile lanceolate, 37.5 × 0.81.5 cm, acute, 3-veined, margin entire Inflorescence ca. 16 cm, spike ca. 5 cm, sub-densely many-flowered. Sterile bracts 6, lanceolate, 510 × 23 mm, diminishing upwards, acute, acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, ca. 5 × 2 mm, as long as or slightly shorter than pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers yellowish green, 2 mm across, pedicel and ovary slender, ca. 6 mm. Dorsal and lateral sepals equal, ovate, ca. 3 × 1.5 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals ovate, ca. 3 × 1.5 mm, obtuse. Petals ovate, as long as sepals, obtuse. Lip deeply 3-lobed, lateral lobes filiform, much longer than mid-lobe, spreading upwards, mid-lobe oblong, broader, obtuse or round apex. Spur ovate, sub-globose, ca. 1 mm. Column ca. 1mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 1,9002,000 m.

 Ecology: In grassland, on humus-covered slopes.

 Flowering: August–September.

4. Peristylus constrictus (Lindl.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 13]:300 (1835).

Herminium constrictum Lindl., Bot. Reg. 18 (1832); Habenaria constricta (Lindl. ex. Wall.)  Hook.f.; Orchis leucantha Buch.-Ham. ex. Wall.; Platanthera constricta Lindl. ex. Wall.

 Plants 4070 cm tall. Tuber cylindric-oblong, 45 × 1.52 cm. Stem slender with 46 overlapping tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 5 cm. Leaves 46, alternate, clustered near middle of the stem, sessile, ovate-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 413 × 36.5 cm, acute, 5-veined, margin entire. Inflorescence 2534 cm, spike 1519 cm, slender, sub-densely to laxly many-flowered. Sterile bracts 313, lanceolate, 1020 × 13 mm, acuminate, lower foliaceous. Floral bracts lanceolate, 518 × 12 mm, longer than the pedicel andovary, acuminate. Flowers white, 1.62.5 mm across, pedicel and ovary narrow, 910 mm. Dorsal sepal brownish, oblong-lanceolate, 79 × 23 mm, sub-acute. Lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 910 × 24 mm, sub-acute, spreading. Petals pure white, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 8.510 × 2.55 mm, sub-acute. Lip pure white, oblong-obovate, 1014 × 45 mm, 3-lobed near middle, lateral lobes linear-lanceolate, weakly falcate, 67 mm, acute, diverging, much longer than mid-lobe, mid-lobe triangular, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 5 mm, obtuse, tapering, broader than lateral lobes. Spur globose to sub-globose, pendulous, ca. 2 mm, compressed. Column 0.81.1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, W Himalaya, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 5001,600 m.

 Ecology: Open slopes or on the shaded floor of forests.

 Used medicinally and as food.

5. Peristylus densus (Lindl.) Santapau & Kapadia, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 57:128 (1960).

Coeloglossum densum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 13]:302 (1835); Habenaria stenostachya (Lindl.) Benth.; Peristylus stenostachyus (Lindl.) Kraenzl.; Platanthera stenostachya Lindl.

Plants 3336 cm tall. Tuber sub-globose to ovoid-oblong, ca. 2 × 1 cm. Stem with 3 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 1.55 cm. Leaves 4, rarely 5, widely spaced along the stem, sessile, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 3.57 × 0.73 cm, acute, distinctly 3-veined, margin entire. Inflorescence 1030 cm, spike 511 cm, laxly to sub-densely 59-flowered. Sterile bracts 13, lanceolate, 2.22.5 × 0.30.7 cm, diminishing upwards, acuminate, sometimes foliaceous. Floral bracts lanceolate, 912 × 23 mm, longer than the pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers green, ca. 8 mm across, pedicel and ovary 57 mm. Dorsal sepal elliptic-lanceolate, 4 × 1.5 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 4 × 1 mm, acute, spreading, turned downwards. Petals oblong-lanceolate, 4 × 1.3 mm, obtuse. Lip ca. 4 mm, deeply 3-lobed, lateral lobes linear, ca. 1.5 mm, spreading horizontally, mid-lobe oblong, ca. 2 mm, round apex, much broader than lateral lobes. Spur cylindric-oblong, pendulous, ca. 2 mm, apex slightly 2-lobed. Column ca. 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 2,1002,800 m.

 Ecology: In open fields.

 Flowering: AugustOctober.

6. Peristylus goodyeroides (D.Don) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 13]:299 (1835).

Habenaria goodyeroides D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.:25 (1825); Herminium goodyeroides (D.Don) Lindl.; Platanthera goodyeroides (D.Don) J.E.Vidal

Plants 3078 cm tall. Tuber cylindric-oblong to ellipsoid, 24.5 × ca. 1 cm. Stem with 37 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 27 cm. Leaves 35, clustered at the middle of stem, sessile, ovate to oblong-elliptic, 2.515 × 1.27.4 cm, acute, narrowed and shortly sheathing at base, 5 or 6 veined, margin entire. Inflorescence 1234 cm, spike 812 cm, sub-densely or densely many-flowered. Sterile bracts 27, lanceolate, 15.5 × 0.22.4 cm, acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 716 × 13 mm, longer than pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers yellowish-green to dirty white, ca. 5 mm across, mildly sweet-scented, pedicel and ovary narrow, slender, 515 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate, concave, 37 × 24 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals ovate-lanceolate, 3.56 × 1.72 mm, acute to obtuse, spreading. Petals oblong-lanceolate, 35 × 34.4 mm, obtuse or acute. Lip oblong-obovate, 4.55.5 × ca. 3.5 mm, 3-lobed near apex, lateral lobes oblong, linear-lanceolate, acute to obtuse, diverging, equal or slightly longer than mid-lobe, mid-lobe oblong, round apex, broader than lateral lobes. Spur globose, pendulous, 12 mm, grooved at the middle. Column ca. 2 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, W Himalaya, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 2003,600 m.

 Ecology: In Pinus roxburghii forest, roadsides, open or shady slopes and moist ground.

 Flowering: MaySeptember.

 The flowers are sweetly scented.

Used medicinally.

7. Peristylus hamiltonianus Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 13]:299 (1835).

Habenaria hamiltoniana (Lindl.) Hook.f.; Orchis micranthema Buch.-Ham. ex. Wall.

Plants 2535cm tall. Tuber ovoid to cylindric, ca. 13 × 8 mm. Stem with 35 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 1.54.5 cm. Leaves 5 or 6, clustered around the middle of stem, sessile, broadly ovate-lanceolate, 36.5 × 0.52.5 cm, acuminate, acute, 3-veined, margin crenulate. Inflorescence 6 15 cm, spike 310 cm, densely many-flowered. Sterile bracts 2, lanceolate, ca. 11 × 2 mm. Floral bracts lanceolate, 11 × 2 mm, longer than pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers white, ca. 4 mm across, pedicel and ovary ca. 5 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 2.54 × ca. 1 mm, obtuse, erect. Lateral sepals oblong, similar to dorsal sepal, 2.54 × ca. 1 mm, obtuse. Petals broadly oblong, as long as sepals, obtuse, partially adnate to lip. Lip 3-lobed near apex, 11.5 mm, lateral lobes ovate-orbicular, slightly shorter than the mid-lobe, diverging, mid-lobe ovate-orbicular, obtuse, broader than lateral lobes.. Spur saccate, globose, pendulous, 1.52 mm. Column ca. 0.6 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2,0002,500 m.

Ecology: Riverine Pinus wallichii-dominated open forest and on open grass slopes.

Flowering: July–August.

8. Peristylus intrudens (Ames) Ormerod, Taiwania 56(1):46 (2011).

Habenaria intrudens Ames, Schedul. Orchid. 6:1 (1923)

Plants ca. 25cm tall. Tuber fleshy ovoid. 10 × 15 mm Stem erect, cylindrical with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths at base. Leaves 3, clustered near base of the stem, sessile, lanceolate, 3.56 × 0.81.2 cm, acute, 4- or 5-veined, prominent mid-vein, margin entire. Inflorescence 1015 cm, spike 4cm, laxly few-flowered. Sterile bracts 5, lanceolate, ca. 15 × 3 mm, acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, ca. 10X 2 mm, as long as or shorter than the pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers white, ca. 3 mm across, pedicel and ovary ca. 810 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-ovate, ca. 3 × 1.5 mm, acute. Lateral sepals similar to dorsal sepal, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, acute. Petals as long as and similar to sepals, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, acute. Lip oblong-ovate, ca. 2.5 mm, 3-lobed, lateral lobes triangular, shorter than mid-lobe, mid-lobe ovate, obtuse. Spur ovoid, 1 mm. Column 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 800900 m.

Ecology: Humid slopes, growing in partial shade.

9. Peristylus lacertifer (Lindl.) Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg Ser.3 9:23 (1927).

Coeloglossum lacertiferum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. [Fasc. 13]:302 (1835); Coeloglossum acuminatum Lindl.; Habenaria lacertifera (Lindl.) Benth.

Plants 2540 cm tall. Tuber ellipsoid, ca. 15 × 6 mm. Stem slender, glabrous, bracteate with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths below leaves. Leaves 2 or 3, basal, sessile, linear-oblong or sub-elliptic, 510 × 12 cm, acute, 4- or 5-veined, prominent mid-vein, margin entire. Inflorescence 1021 cm, spike 1012 cm, slender, laxly many-flowered. Sterile bracts 4 or 5, linear-lanceolate, 10 × 2mm, acuminate. Floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 10 × 2 mm, as long as or slightly shorter than pedicel and ovary, acuminate, clasping. Flowers uniformly green, 34 mm across, pedicel and ovary slender, straight, 610 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate-oblong, ca. 2.5 × 11.5 mm, obtuse. Lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, 2.33 × 11.5 mm, slightly oblique, 1-veined, acute. Petals as long as and similar sepals, ca. 2.3 × 1 mm, acute. Lip 1.5 × 0.6 mm, 3-lobed, fleshy, with callus at base, lateral lobes linear, ca. 1 mm, acuminate, divergent, mid-lobe oblong, 0.50.8 mm, shorter than the lateral lobes, obtuse. Spur ovoid, 1 × 0.5 mm, shortly stalked. Column 11.5 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 2003,200 m.

 Ecology: Forests and grassy slopes.

 Flowering: September.

10. Peristylus lawii Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5[1] Pl.1698 (1851).

Habenaria lawii (Wight) Hook.f.

Plants 1726 cm tall. Tuber ellipsoid to cylindric, ca. 15 × 8 mm. Stem slender, glabrous, with 35 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 2.5 cm. Leaves 35, clustered near the middle of stem, sessile, linear-lanceolate, 312.5 × 0.51 cm, membranous, acute, 3-veined, prominent mid-vein, entire. Inflorescence 611.5 cm, spike 4.59.5 cm, laxly many-flowered. Sterile bracts 23, linear-lanceolate, 919 × 12 mm. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 711 × 13 mm,longer than pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers uniformly white, 5 mm across, pedicel and ovary ca. 6 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 23 × 1.52 mm, ovate, obtuse. Lateral sepals similar to dorsal sepal, subfalcately linear-oblong, 23 × 1.3 mm, obtuse. Petals broadly oblong, 23 × 1.5 mm, fleshy, obtuse. Lip broadly or obtusely 3-lobed, 2.8 × 2 mm, lateral lobes oblong-linear, ca. 1.3 mm, sub-acute, shorter than mid-lobe, mid-lobe oblong-ovate, round apex, broader and slightly longer than lateral lobes. Spur globose-saccate, 12 mm. Column 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

Distribution: Nepal, W Himalaya, Assam-Burma and S Asia.

Altitudinal range: 4001,000 m.

Ecology: Open grassland.

Flowering: August–September

11. Peristylus parishii Rchb.f., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 30:139 (1874).

Habenaria parishii (Rchb.f.) Hook.f.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herbs, 3060 cm. Tuber ellipsoid to cylindric, ca. 4 × 1.32 cm. Stem slender, sparsely hairy, with 2 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 15 mm. Leaves 4 or 5, rarely 3, clustered near the middle of stem, petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate to ovate, 48 × 24 cm, acute, distinctly 5-veined, entire. Inflorescence 4.520 cm, spike slender, laxly to sub-densely many-flowered. Sterile bract 1, lanceolate, long, 11 × 3 mm. Floral bracts small, oblong-lanceolate, 8-10 mm, exceeding the pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers green, ca. 5 mm across, pedicel and ovary ca. 8 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, 46 × 1.52 mm, acute. Lateral sepals oblong, 46 × ca. 1.5 mm, obtuse. Petals ovate-oblong, 24 × 1.8 mm, obtuse. Lip ovate, 45 × ca. 2 mm, 3-lobed near apex, lateral lobes obtuse-oblong, ca. 1mm, mid-lobe ca. 1.5 mm, broader and longer than lateral lobes, obtuse. Spur clavate or fusiform, 12 mm, neck constricted. Column ca. 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 6002,000 m.

 Ecology: Open places.

 This species is currently known in Nepal only from Baker et al. 122 (KATH) from Ganesh Himal. This is a diminutive specimen and the description is based on non-Nepalese material.

12. Peristylus prainii (Hook.f.) Kraenzl., Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1[16]:514 (1901).

Habenaria prainii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6[17]:159 (1890)

Plants (9)1850 cm tall. Tubers rarely 2, ellipsoid to cylindric, ca. 3 × 1.3 cm. Stem slender, with 25 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths 2.54.5 cm. Leaves usually 4, occasionally 3 or 5, clustered near middle of the stem, sessile, oblong to ovate-oblong, 37 × 12.2 cm, acute, 5-veined, crenulate. Inflorescence 920 cm, spike slender, 510.5 cm, laxly to sub-densely many-flowered. Sterile bracts 13, lanceolate, 0.92.2 × 0.10.4 cm, acuminate. Floral bracts oblong-lanceolate, 58 × 12 mm, longer than ovary, acuminate. Flowers uniformly white, ca. 58 mm across, pedicel and ovary 34 mm. Dorsal sepal ovate, 34 × 1.52.5 mm, acute. Lateral sepals oblong-ovate, 34 × 1.52.5 mm, obtuse. Petals oblong, as long as sepals, apiculate, fleshy, obtuse. Lip oblong, 35 × 23.5 mm, 3-lobed near apex, lateral lobes oblong, ca. 1.6 mm, apex acute, slightly shorter than mid-lobe, mid-lobe somewhat triangular, ca. 2 mm, broader than lateral lobes, obtuse. Spur saccate-globose, pendulous, 12 mm, base broadly clawed. Column ca. 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma, S Asia and SE Asia.

 Altitudinal range: 1,2002,100 m.

 Ecology: Open places, pasture.

 Flowering: JulyAugust.

 Although the flowers of Nepalese material are uniformly white, in Bhutanese specimens have uniformly brownish green flowers.

13. Peristylus tipuliferus (Parish & Rchb.f.) Mukerjee, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 21:158 (1953).

Habenaria tipulifera Parish & Rchb.f., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 30:139 (1874)

Plants 1560 cm tall. Tuber cylindric-ovoid, ca. 20 × 45 mm. Stem slender, with 13 tubular sheaths at base, sheaths ca. 2.5 cm. Leaves 24, clustered near base or somewhat spaced along the stem, sessile, lanceolate-oblong, 210.2 × 0.41.5 cm, acute, distinctly 3-veined,entire. Inflorescence 1522 cm, spike slender, 512 cm, laxly few- to many-flowered. Sterile bracts 14, lanceolate, 117 × 2 mm, diminishing upwards, acute, acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 68 × 13 mm, exceeding or as long as the pedicel and ovary, acuminate. Flowers green, ca. 6 mm across, pedicel and ovary slender, narrow, 710 mm. Dorsal sepal, ovate, 34 × ca. 1.5 mm, acute. Lateral sepals, lanceolate, 33.5 × 11.5 mm, obtuse to sub-acute. Petals green, as long as sepals, oblong, 3.54 × 11.5 mm, falcate, obtuse. Lip ca. 4 mm, 3-lobed, red spots present inside, lateral lobes filiform, long, linear, 56 × 0.2 mm, spreading gradually, curved upwards, mid-lobe 23 mm, broader with obtuse apex, much shorter than lateral lobes. Spur clavate, curved and shorter than sepals, 23 mm, weakly 2-lobed. Column ca. 1 mm. Capsule not seen.

 Distribution: Nepal and E Himalaya.

 Altitudinal range: 1,7002,400 m.

 Ecology:  Grassland, base of cliffs.

 Flowering: August–September.