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ORCHIDACEAE

Liparis Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 30 (1817) nom. cons.

Leptorkis Thouars; Platystylis (Blume) Lindl.
By: Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti

Taxon Description

Terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic, sympodial, rhizomatous herbs. Roots fibrous, stout. Stem swollen at base forming a pseudobulb, sometimes noded, clustered or spaced, usually covered by cataphylls. Leaves 1 to several, base sheathing, linear to ovate or elliptic, plicate or not, thinly textured to leathery, basal or cauline (terrestrial species), or arising from apex or subterminal nodes of pseudobulbs (epiphytic species), articulate or not at base. Inflorescences erect, arching to pendulous, racemose, peduncle terete or winged, laxly or densely flowered; floral bracts persistent. Flowers yellow, green, orange, or purple, usually resupinate. Dorsal sepal spreading, free. Petals free, often reflexed, often linear and filiform. Lip often deflexed, simple or obscurely lobed, ovate, oblong, or flabellate, usually with a basal callus, entire, dentate, or crenate, spurless. Column arcuate, clavate, winged at apex and base often dilated; anther cap attached by a slender filament, 2-locular; pollinia 4 in 2 pairs, ovoid, bilaterally flattened, each pair with a small viscidium; rostellum blunt. Fruit subglobose to ellipsoid, often ridged.

Taxon Statistics

Worldwide 423 species, distributed in Asia, Australasia, Europe and North America. 24 species and 1 variety in Nepal.     

Key to Species

1 a Plants epiphytic or lithophytic. Leaves articulate………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………………..2

b Plants terrestrial. Leaves not articulate……………………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………..…………..11

2a Pseudobulbs spindle-shaped, ovoid-oblong or subcylindric. Leaves 3 or 4………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………………3

b Pseudobulbs elliptic, ovoid-cylindric or cylindric. Leaves 1 or 2…………..…………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…….………………………..…..…..5

3a Plants less than 10 cm tall with ovoid-oblong pseudobulbs. Inflorescence erect. Petals deflexed………………………………………………………………………………..15. L. perpusilla

b Plants more than 10 cm tall with spindle-shaped or subcylindric pseudobulbs. Inflorescence arching. Petals reflexed…………………………………………………………………………4

4a Pseudobulbs cylindric, not compressed. Lip elliptic-oblong, column with filiform appendages………………………..………………………..…………………………….…20. L. resupinata

b Pseudobulbs spindle-shaped. Lip subquadrate, column unappendaged……………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………18. L. platyrachis

5a Inflorescence arching………………………………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………………………………………6

b Inflorescence erect…………..……………………..……………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……..9

6a Pseudobulbs elliptic, with 2 leaves. Peduncle bracts lanceolate, lip ovate-orbicular………………………………..……………………………………………….…………………….…8. L. elliptica

b Pseudobulbs ovoid or ovoid-cylindric, with 1 leaf. Peduncle bracts absent, lip broadly oblong, rhombic-ovate, ovate, oblong-obovate or flabellate……………………………7

7a Pseudobulbs ovoid-cylindric. Lip oblong-obovate………………….………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………………………..1. L. bootanensis

b Pseudobulbs ovoid to subcylindric or globose. Lip oblong to broadly oblong……………………………..………………………………………………….………………………..………………………..….8

8a Pseudobulbs ovoid to subcylindric or globose. Lip apiculate…………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………..…4. L. cespitosa

b Pseudobulbs ovoid. Lip dentate, not apiculate……………..…………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……….…….….…7. L. duthiei

9a Pseudobulbs fusiform-ovoid to cylindrical. Lip rhombic-ovate….………………..………………………………………………………..………………………..…………………………….24. L. viridiflora

b Pseudobulbs ovoid or suboblong. Lip ovate or flabellate……………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………..……..10

10a. Pseudobulbs ovoid to suboblong. Lip flabellate, base not auriculate…………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………….…..…….23. L. stricklandiana

b Pseudobulbs ovoid. Lip ovate, base slightly auriculate…………………………..……..……………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…22. L. somae

11a Lip straight with flat base…………………………………………….………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………….….12

b Lip decurved from near middle, with involute base……………………………..……………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..….……….……17

12 a Lip basauriculate……………………………………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..….…..……..13

b Lip base not auriculate…………………………………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..….……..…15

13a Lip ecallose, column base with 2 dentate projections…………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..….……21. L. rostrata

b Lip with callus, column base without dentate projections………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……….………………….14

14a Leaf 1, cordate. Lip with pair of calli…………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………5. L. cordifolia

b Leaves 2, elliptic to ovate. Lip with pair of longitudinal lamellae….………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………………………..3. L. cathcartii

15a Pseudobulbs separated 2–6 cm apart on elongated rhizome. Lip elliptic……..……………….………….………………………..………………………..………………………..….16. L. petiolata

b Pseudobulbs clustered. Lip obovate-orbicular or orbicular…………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………..….16

16a Leaves elliptic, ovate-oblong. Floral bracts deflexed………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…….6. L. deflexa

b Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Floral bracts suberect………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………….….14. L. olivacea

17a Plants less than 5 cm tall. Inflorescence with 1–3-flowered……….………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………….19. L. pygmaea

b Plants more than 5 cm tall. Inflorescence 3–30-flowered………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………….…………18

18a Pseudobulbs conic-cylindric. Petals reflexed…………………….………………………..……………………….………………………..………………………..………………………..…………..12. L. nervosa

b Pseudobulbs ovoid, ovoid-cylindric or ovoid-globose. Petals deflexed………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……19

19a Lip obovate-oblong…………………………………………………………………………………..………………………..……………………….……………………..………………………..………………………..….……20

b Lip cuneate, broadly oblong, suborbicular or broadly obovate-obcordate ………………………..……………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……21

20a Leaves linear to lanceolate. Petals linear-oblanceolate……….….……………………….………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……9. L. ferruginea

b Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Petals linear-oblong………….………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………………….………………………..….….…..….13. L. odorata

21 a Lip cuneate……………………………………………………………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………..22

b Lip broadly oblong, suborbicular or broadly obovate-obcordate ……………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..…………………………………………..23

22a Leaves ovate to elliptic. Peduncle compressed entirely. Flower greenish, slightly purple-tinged………………………………………..………………………………..…2. L. campylostalix

b Leaves oblanceolate. Peduncle cylindric from lower half. Flower evenly deep violet………………………………………………………………………..……………………….11. L. langtangensis

23a Pseudobulbs ovoid-cylindric. Flower uniformly green…….………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………………….17. L. plantaginea

b Pseudobulbs ovoid. Flower greenish purple………………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………..24

24a Leaves oblong or elliptic-oblong. Lip broadly oblong………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……….10. L. glossula

b Leaves elliptic or ovate-oblong. Lip broadly obovate-obcordate……………………………..………………………..………………………..………………………..……………………..…..21. L. rostrata

1. Liparis bootanensis Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 278 (1851).

Leptorkis bootanensis (Griff.) Kuntze; Liparis lancifolia Hook.f.

Epiphytic or epilithic herbs. Plants 13–30 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid or ovoid-cylindric, 15–18 × 5–10 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll ovate-lanceolate, 10–3 × 0.5–1 cm, apex acute. Leaf 1, articulate; petiole 2–4 cm; lamina oblanceolate, 5–15 × 10–30 mm, apex acute. Inflorescence arching, 8–26 cm; peduncle compressed, slightly winged, 3–8 cm; rachis 5–18 cm, distinctly winged, 10–15-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, 5–10 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers yellowish green, 5–8 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 4–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 5–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear, 5–7 × 0.5–1 mm, deflexed, apex acute, margin revolute. Lip broadly oblong-obovate, 5–6 × 4–5 mm; decurved from near middle, involute, base minutely auriculate, with 2 calli, apex subtruncate-rounded, apical margin erose. Column arcuate, 2–3 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit clavate, 5–10 × 4–7 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1400–2500 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic on shaded parts of trees, or lithophytic in moist rock crevices.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: August–October.

2. Liparis campylostalix Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 45 (1877).

Leptorkis campylostalix (Rchb.f.) Kuntze; Liparis giraldiana Kraenzl.; L. pauciflora Rolfe; L. yuana Ormerod.

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 21–29 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid to globose, 6–11 × 5–10 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll broadly ovate, 2–4 × 1.5–2 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 3–5 cm; lamina ovate to subelliptic, 6–7 × 2–3 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 10–25 cm; peduncle 4–15 cm, compressed and winged; rachis 11–13 cm, minutely winged, laxly to subdensely 10–30-flowered. Sterile bracts linear, 20 × 2 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts triangular, 1–1.5 × 1 mm, erect, apex acute. Flowers greenish with slightly tinged purple, 8–10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 6–10 mm. Dorsal sepal ligulate-lanceolate, 5–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Petals linear, 6–7 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip cuneate to oblong-obovate, 5–6 × 3–4 mm; decurved from near middle, involute, base auriculate, ecallose, apex truncate, apiculate, margin entire to irregularly suberose. Column arcuate, 2–3 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit ellipsoid, 4–5 × 3 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, Tibetan Plateau, E Asia and N Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2800–3000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in shaded forests and thickets.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: August–October.

3. Liparis cathcartii Hook.f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1808 (1889).

Leptorkis cathcartii (Hook.f.) Kuntze

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 9–18 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 8–10 × 5–9 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, tubular, 3–4 × 0.8 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 3–5 cm; lamina elliptic to ovate, 6–8.5 × 5–6 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 10–15 cm; peduncle compressed, narrowly winged, 5–7 cm; rachis 3–6 cm, winged, 6–12-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts triangular, 1–1.5 × 1 mm, erect, apex obtuse. Flowers greenish, lip tinted with purple; 8–10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 7–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 7–10 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong, 7–10 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals filiform, 7–10 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip obovate, 7–10 × 7–8 mm; straight, base flat, auriculate, with 2 short longitudinal lamellae, apex subtruncate and mucronate, margin irregularly erose. Column arcuate, 3–4 mm, unappendaged, base dilated and thick, apex winged, wings suborbicular. Fruit obovoid, 6–10 × 5 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1900–2500 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial, on humid slopes.

Flowering: July-August. Fruiting: September–October.

4. Liparis cespitosa (Lam.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 11: t. 882 (1825).

Epidendrum cespitosum Lam., Encycl. 1: 187 (1783); Leptorkis cespitosa (Lam.) Kuntze; Liparis pusilla Ridl.; Malaxis cespitosa (Lam.) Thouars

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 4–8 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid to subcylindric or globose, 5–6 × 3–6 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll ovate-lanceolate, 7–10 × 5–7 mm, apex acute. Leaf 1, articulate; petiole 10–20 mm; lamina oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, 2–5 × 0.5–0.8 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence arching, 5–8 cm; peduncle compressed, slightly winged, 2–4 cm; rachis 1.5–4 cm, not distinctly winged, 5–20-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts subulate, ca. 2–5 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers greenish white, 1.5–2 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 1.5–2 mm. Dorsal sepal suboblong, 15–18 × 7 mm, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 1–1.5 × 0.5–1 mm, apex obtuse, margin flat. Petals narrowly linear, 1.5–2 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lip broadly oblong, 1.5–2 × 1 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, ecallose, apex subtruncate, apiculate, margin entire. Column arcuate, 1–1.5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit globose to ovoid, 2–3 × 2 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, Assam-Burma, Africa, Tibetan Plateau, S Asia, E Himalaya, W Himalaya, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

Altitudinal range: 1000–1400 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic on trees trunks in broad-leaved forests.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: August–November.

5. Liparis cordifolia Hook.f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1811 (1889).

Leptorkis cordifolia (Hook.f.) Kuntze; Liparis argentopunctata Aver.; L. keitaoensis Hayata

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 10–18 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 20–30 × 5–10 mm, slightly flattened. Cataphyll ovate-oblong, 3 × 1 cm, apex obtuse.  Leaf 1, not articulate; petiole 1–2 cm; lamina ovate to cordate, 5–8.5 × 4.5 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 10–16 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 5–10 cm; rachis 5 cm, winged, 10–20-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts deltoid-lanceolate, ca. 0.5–1 × 1 mm, erect, apex subacute. Flowers green or pale green, 10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 10–15 mm. Dorsal sepal linear-lanceolate, 7–10 × 1.5 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals filiform, 7–10 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex acute, margin revolute. Lip broadly obovate, 7–10 × 5–8 mm; straight, base flat, auriculate, above base a pair calli, apex truncate, emarginate and mucronate, margin erose-denticulate. Column arcuate, 4–5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings subquadrate. Fruit not seen. 

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, C Asia, S Asia, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1400–2000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in shady slopes.

Flowering: August–September. Fruiting: October–November.

6. Liparis deflexa Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 697 (1890).

Leptorkis deflexa  (Hook.f.) Kuntze; Liparis flavoviridis Blatt. & McCan; L. prazeri King & Pantl.

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 18–38 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 10–15 × 5–10 mm, slightly flattened. Cataphyll lanceolate, 2–7 × 0.5–1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 1.5–3 cm; lamina elliptic, ovate-oblong, 3–16 × 6–8.5 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, 15–30 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, winged, 5–11 cm; rachis 10–19 cm, not distinctly winged, 10–40-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, 4–10 × 0.5–2 mm, deflexed, apex acute. Flowers pale green, 10–14 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 6–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 6–9 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 6–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear-oblong, 7–10 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip orbicular, 6–10 × 5–8 mm; straight, base flat, not auriculate, base with 2 calli, apex truncate and mucronate, margin erose-denticulate. Column arcuate, 3–4 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit clavate, 10–20 × 5–6 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, S Asia, E Himalaya, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

Altitudinal range: 400–1300 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in woodlands, forests and forest margins.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

7. Liparis duthiei Hook.f. Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1857b (1889).

Leptorkis duthiei (Hook.f.) Kuntze

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 3–6 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 5–10 × 3–5 mm, slightly flattened. Cataphyll ovate, 4–10 × 3–5 mm, apex acuminate. Leaf 1, articulate; petiole 5–20 mm; lamina oblanceolate, 1–5 × 0.3–0.7 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence arching, 3–6 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, winged; rachis 1–2.5 cm, winged, 10–40-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts subulate, 2–5 × 0.5–1 mm, erect, apex acuminate. Flowers greenish white, 2–3 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 2–3 mm. Dorsal sepal suboblong, 1.5–2 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 1.5–2 × 05–1 mm, apex subacute, margin flat. Petals linear, 15–2 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lip oblong, 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, base with inconspicuous calli, apex slightly truncate, margin entire. Column slightly arcuate, 1 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular.  Fruit globose, 3–4 × 3 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal and E Himalaya.

Altitudinal range: 500–1000 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic in broad-leaved forests and on forest margins.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

8. Liparis elliptica Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5: 17 t. 1735 (1851).

Leptorkis elliptica (Wight) Kuntze; Liparis hookeri Ridl.; L. platybolba Hayata; L. wightii Rchb.f.

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 13–19 cm tall. Pseudobulbs elliptic or ellipsoid, 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 cm, bilaterally compressed. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 2, articulate; subssesile, petiole 5 mm; lamina oblong-lanceolate, 6–9.5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, apex acute to shortly acuminate. Inflorescence arching, 11–16 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 9–8.5 cm; rachis 2–7.5 cm, distinctly winged, 5–10-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 7–10 × 0.5 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts lanceolate, 1–3 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acuminate. Flowers pale yellowish green, 5–6 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 4–6 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 4–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lateral sepals lanceolate, 4 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse, margin flat. Petals linear, 4–5 × 0.5 mm, not deflexed, apex obtuse, margin flat. Lip ovate-orbicular, 4–5 × 3–4 mm; obscurely decurved from near middle, involute, base auriculate, ecallose, apex acuminate, margin crisped toward apex. Column arcuate, 1.5–2 mm, unappendaged, base slightly dilated, apex winged, wings suborbicular. Fruit obovoid, 4–5 × 3 mm.   

Distribution: Nepal, S Asia, E Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

Altitudinal range: 1400–1700 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic, on shaded tree trunks and large branches.

Flowering: October–November. Fruiting: December–August.

9. Liparis ferruginea Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1848: 55 (1848).

Leptorkis ferruginea (Lindl.) Kuntze

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 27–29 cm tall. Pseudobulbs narrowly ovoid, 10 × 5 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, 2–4 × 0.5–1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 3–4 cm; lamina linear to lanceolate, 8–11.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 18–20 cm; peduncle compressed, winged; rachis 5–5.5 cm, distinctly winged, 5–10-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate, 3 × 1 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, ca. 4–7 × 1 mm, deflexed, apex acute. Flowers yellowish green, lip pale yellowish brown slightly tinged with purple; 5 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 6–10 cm. Dorsal sepal linear, 5–6 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 4–5 × 2–2.5 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Petals linear-oblanceolate, 5–6 × 1 mm, deflexed, apex subacute, margin revolute. Lip obovate-oblong, 3–5 × 2.5–3 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, calli near base, apex truncate, emarginate and apiculate, margin erose towards apex. Column arcuate, 3–3.5 mm, unappendaged, base not dilated, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit obovoid-oblong, ca. 15 × 6 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 400–800 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial on damp grassland slopes.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

10. Liparis glossula Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 44 (1876).

Leptorkis glossula (Rchb.f.) Kuntze

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 8–17 cm tall. Pseudobulbs, ovoid, 5–10 × 6–10 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, 2–5 × 0.5–1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaf 1, not articulate; petiole 1–5 cm; lamina oblong or elliptic-oblong, 8–12 × 2–4 cm, apex obtuse or subacute. Inflorescence erect, 9–13 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 4–5 cm; rachis 4–9 cm, distinctly winged, 5–10-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, 6–10 × 1–2 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers purple, 10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 10–12 mm. Dorsal sepal linear-lanceolate, 10 × 2 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals linear-lanceolate, 10 × 2 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Petals filiform or linear, 10 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip broadly oblong, 8–10 × 7–9 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, ecallose, apex subtruncate and mucronate, margin erose. Column arcuate, 4–5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated with 2 callus-shaped projections, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit obovoid, 5–10 × 5 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, S Asia and C Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2800–4000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in temperate forests and alpine grassland slopes.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

11. Liparis langtangensis Raskoti & Ale, Novon 23: 83 (2014).

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 15–20 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 1–1.5 × 0.5–1 cm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, 2.5–4 × 1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 3–4 cm; lamina oblanceolate, 4–5.5 × 1–1.5 cm, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 10–15 cm; peduncle lower half cylindric and upper half compressed and winged, 7–9 cm; rachis 3–5 cm, winged, 3–8-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts triangular, 1.5–2 × 1.5–2 mm, erect, apex acute. Flowers deep violet, 10–15 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 11–15 mm. Dorsal sepal ligulate to lanceolate, 8–10 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong to lanceolate, 6–7 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Petals linear, 8–10 × 1 mm, apex obtuse, deflexed, margin revolute. Lip cuneate, 7–8 × 4–5 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base not auriculate, ecallose, apex apiculate, margin irregularly erose. Column arcuate, 5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated with 2 fleshy parallel thickened pads, apex winged, wings triangular.  Fruit ellipsoid, 5–7 × 3 mm.

Distribution: Endemic to Nepal.

Altitudinal range: 3700–3900 m.

Ecology: Alpine grassland slopes.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

12. Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 26 (1830).

Ophrys nervosa Thunb., J.A. Murray (ed.), Syst. Veg. 14. 814 (1784); Epidendrum nervosum (Thunb.) Thunb.; Malaxis nervosa (Thunb.) Sw.

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 13–17 cm tall. Pseudobulbs conic-cylindric, ca. 2–6 × 0.4 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll ovate to lanceolate, 3–6 × 1–1.5 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2 or 3, not articulate; petiole ca. 1–2 cm; lamina ovate to ovate-elliptic, 5–9 × 2–4.5 cm, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 8–12 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 5–7 cm, rachis 3–5 cm, winged, 3–10-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts deltoid, ca. 1–2 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex acute. Flowers purple, 6–8 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 7–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 6–7 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 5–7 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revoute. Petals filiform, 6–7 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip oblong-obovate, 5–6 × 4–4.5 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, calli at base, apex truncate and emarginate, margin entire. Column arcuate, 2–2.5 mm, unappendaged, base not distinctly dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit obovate-oblong, 10–15 × 5–7 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, Africa, Australasia, Assam-Burma, S Asia, E Himalaya, W Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, E Asia, SE Asia, S America and N America.

Altitudinal range: 1300–1600 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in forests margins and damp places.

Flowering: July–September. Fruiting: September–October.

Liparis nervosa var. khasiana (Hook.f.) P.K.Sarkar, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5: 1008 (1984).

Petals straight (not twisted) and also not reflexed.

Distribution: Nepal, Assam-Burma, and E Himalaya.

Altitudinal range: 1300–1400 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in forests margins and damp places.

Flowering: July–September. Fruiting: September–October

13. Liparis odorata (Willd.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 26 (1830).

Malaxis odorata Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 91 (1805); Empusa paradoxa Lindl.; Leptorkis odorata (Willd.) Kuntze; Liparis paradoxa (Lindl.) Rchb.f.; L. parishii (Hook.f.) Hook.f.

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 27–53 cm tall. Pseudobulbs subovoid, 10–15 × 0.8–15 cm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, 2–5 × 0.5–1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2 or 3, not articulate; petiole 2–5 cm; lamina oblong-lanceolate, 7–18 × 1.5–3.5 cm, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 14–40 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 8–15 cm; rachis 10–25 cm, winged, 10–25-flowered. Sterile bracts linear, 5–6 × 1 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 4–6 × 1 mm, suberect, horizontal or deflexed, apex acute. Flowers greenish yellow or lip tinged with purple, 6–9 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 6–10 mm. Dorsal sepal linear, 6–8 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate-oblong, 6–7 × 2–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals nearly linear-oblong, 6–7 × 1 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip obovate-oblong, 4–5 × 5–4 mm; decurved from middle, basal half involute, base auriculate, with 2 calli near base, apex subtruncate and emarginate, apical margin denticulate. Column arcuate, 3–4 mm, unappendaged, base not distintly dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit ellipsoid 10–15 × 5 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

Altitudinal range: 900–2000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in forests margins and on grassland slopes.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

14. Liparis olivacea Lindl. Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 27 (1830).

Leptorkis olivacea (Lindl.) Kuntze

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 12–20 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid to conic, 6–10 × 5 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, ca. 2–2.5 × 0.5 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 2–3 cm; lamina ovate-lanceolate, 5–8.5 × 2–3 cm, apex acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 10–17 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, winged, 5–7 cm; rachis 3–6 cm, obscurely winged, 5–7-flowered. Sterile bracts linear-lanceolate, 10 × 1 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 0.5–10 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acuminate. Flowers olive-green, ca. 8–12 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–7 mm. Dorsal sepal lanceolate, 5–8 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 5–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals filiform, 5–6 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip obovate-orbicular, 5–6 × 4–5 mm; straight, base flat, not auriculate, with calli, apex truncate, margin erose-denticulate. Column arcuate, 2–3 mm, unappendaged, base dilated and thick, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit clavate, 10–15 × 5 mm.

Distribution: Endemic to Nepal.

Altitudinal range: 800–1000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in forest margins.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

15. Liparis perpusilla Hook.f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1856b (1889).

Leptorkis perpusilla (Hook.f.) Kuntze; Liparis togashii Tuyama; Platystyliparis perpusilla (Hook.f.) Marg.

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 3–9 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid-oblong, 5–10 × 1.5–2 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 3–5, articulate; petiole 3–5 mm; lamina linear, 10–20 × 2–3 mm, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, 2–5 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 1–2.5 cm; rachis 1–2.5 cm, winged, 3–10-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 2–3 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers yellowish, 3–4 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 4–5 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 1.5–3 × 0.5–1 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals elliptic-oblong, 2–2.5 × 1 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear, 2–2.5 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip suborbicular, 1–1.5 × 1 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base not auriculate, with a basal callus near base and 2 divergent calli above the basal callus, apex obtuse-rounded, margin crisped. Column arcuate, 1–1.5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit ellipsoid, 2–3 × 2 mm. 

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2500–2900 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic in temperate woodlands.

Flowering: July. Fruiting: August–October.

16. Liparis petiolata (D.Don) P.F.Hunt & Summerh., Kew Bull. 20: 52 (1966).

Acianthus petiolatus D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 29 (1825); Liparis nepalensis Lindl.; L. pulchella Hook.f.; L. taronensis S.C.Chen.

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 13–22 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 10–20 × 5–10 cm, 2–6 cm apart on elongated rhizome, uncompressed. Cataphyll broadly lanceolate, 2–4 × 1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 3–6 cm; lamina broadly ovate, 5–10 × 2.5–8 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, 9–18.5 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 4–7 cm; rachis 3–15 cm, winged, 5–30-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, 5–8 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers greenish white, petals and lip tinged with purple; 8–10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 6–8 mm. Dorsal sepal linear-lanceolate, 6–8 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute.  Lateral sepals obliquely linear-lanceolate, 6–8 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals narrowly linear, 6–8 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex acute, margin revolute. Lip elliptic, 10–15 × 4–6 mm; straight, base flat, not auriculate, with 2 calli near base, apex aristate, margin irregularly truncated. Column arcuate, 2–4 mm, unappendaged, base thickened, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit subobovoid-oblong, 10–15 × 5–7 mm.   

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, E Asia and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1800–2800 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in dense forests and forest margins.

Flowering: July–August. Fruiting: September–October.

17. Liparis plantaginea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 29 (1830).

Leptorkis plantaginea (Lindl.) Kuntze; Liparis selligera Rchb.f.; Stichorkis plantaginea (Lindl.) Marg., Szlach. & Kulak

Terrestrial or rarely epilithic herbs. Plants 18–21 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid-cylindric, 3 × 0.5 cm, uncompressed. Cataphyll ovate, 2–4 × 0.7–1 cm, apex acute. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 1.5–3.5 cm; lamina oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate-oblong, 9–13 × 2–3 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence suberect, 11–22 cm; peduncle 7–8 cm, compressed, narrowly winged; rachis 4–10 cm, winged, 4–10-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 7–12 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5–10 × 1–1.5 mm, suberect, apex acuminate. Flowers uniformely green, 9–10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 1–1.5 cm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 9–10 ×  1–1.5 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obscurely obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 9–10 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute, margin revolute. Petals linear, 10–11 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex subacute, margin revolute. Lip suborbicular, 7–10 × 6–7 mm; decurved from above base, flat, base not auriculate, with 2-lobed callus, apex subtruncate and mucronate, margin minutely erose. Column slightly arcuate, 3–4 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit obovoid, 6–10 × 5 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, Assam-Burma and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 700–800 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial or lithophytic within broad-leaved forest.

Flowering: June–July. Fruiting: August–September.

18. Liparis platyrachis Hook.f., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1890(1889).

Leptorkis platyrachis (Hook.f.) Kuntze

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 15–18 cm tall. Pseudobulbs spindle-shaped, 2–3 × 0.8 cm, usually bilaterally compressed. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 3–5, articulate, subsessile; petiole 4–5 mm; lamina lanceolate, 5–6.5 × 1 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence arching, 12–13 cm, peduncle slightly compressed, narrowly winged, 5–6 cm; rachis 6–8 cm, not distinctly winged, up to 20-flowered. Sterile bracts lanceolate, 5–7 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts subulate to lanceolate, 5–6 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers yellowish, 5 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–6 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 3–4 × 1.5–2 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong, 3–4 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear, 3–4 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip subquadrate, 3–3.5 × 2 mm; decurved from above base, base involute, base not auriculate but twisted below middle that appearing like auricles, near base with 4 calli, distal 2 larger, apex emarginate, margin entire. Column slightly arcuate, 2–3 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit obovoid-oblong, ca. 5–10 × 5 mm.  

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1400–1500 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic in open forests.

Flowering: September–October. Fruiting: November–May.

19. Liparis pygmaea King & Pantl., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 8: 34 (1898).

Terrestrial or epilithic herbs. Plants 4–5 cm tall. Pseudobulbs globose to ovoid, 6–10 × 5–9 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll ovate, ca. 5–8 × 5 mm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate, sessile or rarely subsessile; petiole 5 mm; lamina ovate to elliptic, 10–15 × 4–6 mm, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, 2.5–5 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, not distinctly winged, 1–2 cm; rachis  1–2.5 cm, not winged, 1–3-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts lanceolate, ca. 2–3 × 1 mm, erect, apex acute. Flowers 6–9 mm across, dark purple to violet. Pedicel and ovary 3–6 mm. Dorsal sepal linear, 7–10 × 2 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute.  Lateral sepals linear, 7–10 × 1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear, 5–8 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex acute, margin revolute. Lip oblong-ovate, 6–7 × 3 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base not auriculate, with a fleshy 2-lobed callus at base, apex obscurely dentate, apiculate, margin erose towards apical portion. Column arcuate, 2.5–3 mm, unappendaged, base dilated, apex winged, wings broadly triangular. Fruit not seen.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, W Himalaya and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 3100–3800 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in subalpine grassland slopes.

Flowering: April–June. Fruiting: April–June.

20. Liparis resupinata Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 290 (1886).

Leptorkis resupinata (Ridl.) Kuntze; Platystyliparis resupinata (Ridl.) Marg.

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 10–19 cm tall. Pseudobulbs subcylindric, 2–5 × 0.5–1 cm, uncompressed. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 3 or 4, articulate, subsessile; petiole 5 mm; lamina oblong-lanceolate, 2–8 × 0.5–10 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence arching, 6–13 cm, peduncle compressed, slightly winged, 1–4 cm; rachis 5–9 cm, winged, 10–25-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5–6 × 1.5 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 2–5 × 1 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers pale green, 6–8 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–8 mm. Dorsal sepal elliptic-oblong, 5–6 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals elliptic-oblong, 5–6 × 1–1.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear to filiform, ca. 5–6 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip broadly elliptic-oblong, 3–4 × 1 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute and only weakly auriculate, below middle with a lateral split, epichile auriculate, sagittate, hypochile with suborbicular lobes, 2-lobed callus at centre, apex obtuse, margin entire. Column straight, 3–4 mm, with filiform appendages, base dilated, apex winged, wings suborbicular. Fruit obovoid-oblong, ca. 5–10 × 5 mm.   

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, W Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 1300–2600 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic in moist open forests.

Flowering: October–November. Fruiting: November–April.

21. Liparis rostrata Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 44 (1876).

Liparis diodon Rchb.f..

Terrestrial herbs. Plants 10–22 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 5–8 × 4–8 mm, uncompressed. Cataphyll lanceolate, 1–2.5 × 1 cm, apex obtuse. Leaves 2, not articulate; petiole 2–4 cm; elliptic, ovate or ovate-oblong, 3.5–8 × 1.5–4 cm, apex acute or obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 8–20 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, narrowly winged, 6–15 cm; rachis 2.5–5 cm, distinctly winged, 5–14-flowered. Sterile bracts absent. Floral bracts ovate-triangular, 1–3 × 0.5 mm, suberect, apex acute. Flowers greenish purple, ca. 10 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 8–12 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 8–10 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong, 7–10 × 1–1.5 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Petals nearly filiform, 7–10 × 0.5 mm, deflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip broadly obovate-obcordate, 7–10 × 6–7 mm; slightly decurved, base flat, base auriculate, ecallose, apex mucronate, margin irregularly toothed. Column slightly arcuate, 3–3.5 mm, unappendaged, base dilated with 2 thick dentate projections, apex winged, wings suborbicular. Fruit obovoid, 7–10 × 5 mm.   

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, W Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 2000–3000 m.

Ecology: Terrestrial in temperate woodlands.

Flowering: April-June. Fruiting: July–August.

22. Liparis somae Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 4: 33 (1914).

Liparis sikkimensis Lucksom & S.Kumar

Epiphytic herbs. Plants 15–20 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid, 2–3.5 × 1–1.5 cm, bilaterally compressed and longitudinally ridged. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 2, articulate, subssesile; petiole 5–10 mm; lamina oblanceolate, 10–13 × 1–2 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 10–20 cm; peduncle slightly compressed, narrowly winged, 5–7 cm; rachis 11–14 cm, winged, up to 60-flowered. Sterile bracts ovate-lanceolate, 7–10 × 1 mm, apex acute. Floral bracts lanceolate, 2–5 × 0.5–1 mm, erect, apex acuminate. Flowers whitish, 3–4 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–10 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 × 1 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-lanceolate, 2–3 × 1 mm, apex acute, margin revolute. Petals linear, 2–2.5 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip ovate, 2.5–3 × 2 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, slightly auriculate, ecallose, obscurely 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect ca. 1 mm; mid-lobe ca. 1.5 × 1.5 mm, apex acute, apical margin slightly denticulate. Column arcuate, 1.5–2 mm, unappendaged, base not distinctly dilated, apex shortly winged, wings triangular. Fruit ovoid, 2–3 × 2 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya and E Asia.

Altitudinal range: 500–1300 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic in humid forests.

Flowering: September–November. Fruiting: December–May.

23. Liparis stricklandiana Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 13: 232 (1880).

Leptorkis dolabella (Hook.f.) Kuntze; L. stricklandiana (Rchb.f.) Kuntze; Liparis dolabella Hook.f.

Epiphytic herbs. Plants ca. 30 cm tall. Pseudobulbs ovoid to suboblong, 2–4 × 1–1.5 cm, slightly compressed. Cataphyll ovate-lanceolate, 3–4 × 1 cm, apex subacute. Leaves 2, articulate; petiole 5–10 cm; oblanceolate, 15–18 × 2–2.5 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, 15–30 cm; peduncle compressed, winged, 9–12 cm; rachis 10–18 cm, winged, 10–20-flowered. Sterile bracts subulate, 8–10 × 1 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts subulate, 5–10 × 0.5 mm, suberect, apex acuminate. Flowers greenish, ca. 5 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–8 mm. Dorsal sepal oblong, 4–5 × 1.5–2 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals oblong, 4–5 × 1.5–2.5 mm, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Petals filiform, 4–5 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex acute, margin revolute. Lip flabellate, 4–5 × 4–6 mm; slightly decurved near middle, basal half involute, base not auriculate, callus at base, apex subtruncate and mucronate, apical margin erose. Column arcuate, 3–4 mm, unappendaged, base slightly dilated, apex narrowly winged, wings triangular. Fruit obovoid-ellipsoid, 5–7 × 5 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, E Asia, Tibetan Plateau and SE Asia.

Altitudinal range: 600–1200 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic on sun-exposed tree trunks.

Flowering: September-November. Fruiting: December–May.

24. Liparis viridiflora (Blume) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 31 (1830).

Malaxis viridiflora Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 392 (1825); Leptorkis longipes (Lindl.) Kuntze; L. viridiflora (Blume) Kuntze; Liparis longipes Lindl.

Epiphytic or epilithic herbs. Plants 12–34 cm tall. Pseudobulbs fusiform-ovoid to cylindric, 3–5 × 1–2.5 cm, uncompressed. Cataphyll absent. Leaves 2, articulate, subsessile; petiole 4–6 mm; lamina obovate-lanceolate, 6–21 × 1–3.5 cm, acuminate to obtuse. Inflorescence erect, 10–30 cm, peduncle compressed, winged, 4–10 cm; rachis 6–20 cm, not distinctly winged, 20–60-flowered. Sterile bracts linear-lanceolate, 5–10 × 0.5 mm, apex acuminate. Floral bracts lanceolate, 3–7 × 0.5–1 mm, suberect, apex acuminate. Flowers greenish-white, 4–5 mm across. Pedicel and ovary 5–7 mm. Dorsal sepal lanceolate-oblong, 3–5 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute to obtuse, margin revolute. Lateral sepals obliquely oblong-elliptic, 3–4 × 1–1.5 mm, apex subacute to obtuse, margin revolute. Petals linear-oblong, 3–4 × 0.5 mm, reflexed, apex obtuse, margin revolute. Lip rhombic-ovate, 2–27 × 14–2 mm; decurved from near middle, basal half involute, base not auriculate, with 2-lobed callus at base,  apex subacute, margin entire. Column arcuate, 2–3 mm, unappendaged, base not distinctly dilated, apex winged, wings triangular. Fruit globose-ellipsoid, 3–4 × 2–3 mm.

Distribution: Nepal, E Himalaya, S Asia, E Asia, SE Asia and Australasia.

Altitudinal range: 600–1300 m.

Ecology: Epiphytic on trees trunks and large branches.

Flowering: August-September. Fruiting: October–December.